Tax & Legal

Tax & Legal

Municipality as a business for VAT

In a recent decision the Supreme Tax Court dealt with the provision of services by public bodies under German VAT law. If the economic activities of a public body are not outstanding and distinct from its overall activities it is not a taxable business for VAT and thus not eligible to deduct input VAT incurred on the underlying costs. Continue reading

Preemptive warnings to competitors subject to VAT

A company dealing in the field of electronic data processing served its competitors with prior written warnings due to violations of general business terms and conditions and received reimbursement of the expenses incurred. The tax office assumed a taxable service being subject to VAT. The Supreme Tax Court confirmed this view. Continue reading

No extended trade tax deduction on the disposal of an interest in a real estate partnership

Profits arising from the sale of an interest in a partnership are not to be included in the extended trade tax deduction for real estate enterprises.

According to Section 9 no. 1 2nd Sentence of the Trade Tax Act (TTA), in place of the deduction under Section 9 No. 1 1st Sentence TTA (lump sum deduction of 1.2% of the assessed value of the real estate), enterprises, which exclusively manage and use their own real estate, may make an application to make an (extended) deduction relating to the part of the trading income which relates to the management and use of their own real estate.

B AG (a company) was initially the sole limited partner in the A KG (a limited partnership). In 2004 B AG sold a number of interests in its limited partnership holding and subsequently held an interest of 6%. In that year (2004) A KG managed a single logistics property in Hamburg Harbour. In its trade tax return for the year it declared total income from a trade, including the gains on disposals of the partnership interests made by B AG. An application was made for an extended deduction in the sum of the whole trading income.

The tax office argued that Section 9 No. 1 6th Sentence TTA explicitly excluded the deduction of gains on disposals of this type. A KG countered this argument by contending that Section 9 No. 1 6th Sentence TTA was introduced through a change in the law on 9 December 2014 but that the disposals of the partnership interests had been completed before the law came into force; a retrospective application of the provision would be unconstitutional. The Supreme Tax Court did not consider this argumentation, but rather came straight to the conclusion that the extended deduction (Section 9 no. 1 2nd Sentence TTA) did not apply in the first place.

According to the Supreme Tax Court the extended deduction provision applied solely to untainted income arising from the actual management of real estate (i.e. actually carried out) and not to gains arising from the disposal of a share in a partnership interest. These were operating profits. The reasoning given for this view was that when a partnership interest was sold in an enterprise which managed real estate, the consideration received was not as a rule just fixed in relation to the proportional share in the real estate. Rather the consideration also took into account the forecasted earnings, the potential increases in value and the opportunities to make profits. Accordingly the partial sale of a partnership interest did not amount to the mere exploitation of real estate but rather went beyond the management and use of own real estate.


Supreme Tax Court decision of 8 December 2016 (IV R 14/13), published on 15 February 2017.

Write-downs to fair market value resulting from foreign exchange rate differences on investment units are to be added back off-balance sheet

Where a company, which has acquired investment units in US dollar denominated equity funds, writes down the value of the investment units to their fair market value following an unfavourable development in the foreign currency exchange rate, the company must add the write down back off-balance sheet.



The question before the tax courts was whether foreign currency exchange losses arising from the valuation of investment units could be recognised in calculating the income for corporation tax purposes. The plaintiff (a German limited company – GmbH) had valued the investment units at their lower fair market value as at the balance sheet dates. (This was a permissible treatment.) The company sold the investment units and made a profit in US dollar terms. However, due to the fall in the foreign currency exchange rate, a loss was incurred in Euro terms. The tax office recognised the loss as such, but added it back off-balance sheet according to Section 8b (3) 3rd Sentence Corporation Tax Act. This treatment was confirmed by both the tax court and the Supreme Tax Court.


Reduction of profits arising from write-downs to fair market value are to be neutralised off-balance sheet.

According to Section 8 (2) of the Investment Tax Act the investor’s gain arising from the shares during the time of ownership (i.e. the difference between the gain on the shares as at the valuation date and the gain as at the date of acquisition – “pro rata temporis gain”) is relevant for the determination of the level of the off-balance sheet add-back. According to the Supreme Tax Court such pro rata temporis loss had been incurred on the shares. Such a reduction in value does not only occur where the stock market price of the shares held by the investment fund goes down, but also where the value of the shares at the balance sheet date has sunk because of a fall in the foreign currency exchange rate. For tax purposes no differentiation is to be made between losses incurred through changes in the stock market price and losses incurred through changes in the foreign currency exchange rates. According to the Supreme Tax Court the purpose of the Investment Tax Act is – following the so-called investment tax law transparency principle – to put investors in funds on a par with direct investors. This should also apply to investments in equity funds. Thus an off-balance sheet add back is also required where the investor decides to write down the value of a fund unit due to a foreign currency exchange loss to ensure an equal tax treatment with direct investors.


Existing symmetry of the rules excludes a breach of EU law

The Supreme Tax Court took the view that the off balance sheet add-back did not amount to a restriction of the EU basic freedoms. The add-back did indeed mean that, ultimately, the foreign currency exchange rate loss was not recognised for tax purposes. However, in the opposite case of an exchange rate gain, which is reflected through a pro rata temporis gain, the law provides for a tax exemption (Section 8 (1) and (3) of the Investment Tax Act and Section 8b (2) Corporation Tax Act).



Supreme Tax Court decision ( I R 63/15) of 21 September 2016, published on 15 February 2017


Interest paid by foreign partner deductible also in case of two-tier partnership

In a decision published in March 2017 the Supreme Tax Court held that – in the case of a two-tier partnership structure – the interest expense of the Dutch partner holding only an indirect share in a German limited partnership is nevertheless tax deductible when computing his limited German tax liability resulting from his investment in the German partnership. Continue reading

10 percent threshold for input VAT deduction for private use only

The right to deduct input VAT may be excluded only in cases in which the goods acquired are used, to an extent greater than 90%, for purposes other than the taxable person’s business, and not where the goods are used for non-economic purposes (such as: in the course of public activities). Continue reading